Here are our tips on the proper planting procedures for both b&b (balled and burlapped, shown on the right) and container-grown plants (photo below left).
How to Plant
Make sure your container-grown plant is moist, or water it well several hours before you plant it. Turn the plant upside down, while supporting the root ball with your hand. Grasp the container and allow the plant to slide out of the pot. If the plant is too large, cut the sides of the container and lift the plant out. Untangle matted roots, if necessary, by agitating with a 3-pronged cultivator. This action will expose healthy roots to the surrounding soil when planted. B&B plants need to be handled carefully to limit root disturbance.
Always pick the plant up by the root ball - never by the trunk or stem. Balled and burlapped plants should be placed directly in a prepared planting hole, burlap and all. The burlap covering the root ball will decompose naturally, but should be loosened from around the stem of the plant and rolled down into the planting hole and covered with soil. If the burlap is left exposed on the soil surface, it will act like a wick, letting the root ball dry out too quickly. Some burlap is synthetic, this will need to be removed completely, or it will inhibit root growth. Remove all twine or rope that may bind around the plant's roots. If the plant is in a wire basket, cut it off with wire cutters and remove it, being careful not to disturb the plant roots.The next few steps are the same for both b&b and container grown plants.
Dig a hole three times as wide as the root ball. The hole must have slopped sides. The hole should be no deeper than the root ball. If the soil does not drain well, the hole should be dug to a depth that will allow the top of the root ball to sit slightly above ground level. The soil directly beneath the root ball should not be disturbed. Roughen the sides of the hole to prevent a glazing effect that could inhibit the ability of the roots to penetrate into the existing soil.
Save the soil you remove and mix it with equal amounts of topsoil and organic matter such as peat moss, compost, peat humus or fine bark mulch. Place the plant in the hole so that the root ball sits level with or slightly above ground level. Fill in around the root ball with the soil mix and pack firmly. Construct a shallow basin around the planting hole. This concentrates water to the root system and prevents runoff.
Apply 2 to 3 inches of mulch. Do not place mulch against the stem or trunk of the plant. Water thoroughly, using a starter fertilizer. Watering will be the primary need of your new plant for the first few seasons. Water your newly planted trees and shrubs deeply about once a week for the first month or two. As it becomes established, waterings should become less frequent. Eventually, water will be needed only during long periods without rain.
Top photo credit. Lower photo credit.